ALTERACIONES CROMOSOMICAS PDF

Identificación de alteraciones cromosómicas en pacientes con esquizofrenia en la población cubana / Identification of chromosomal aberrations in Cuban. Download scientific diagram | Clasificación de las alteraciones cromosómicas numéricas. from publication: The utility of cytogenetics in modern medicine. Deleciones cromosómicas, a veces conocidas como monosomías parciales, tipos de pruebas genéticas que pueden identificar alteraciones cromosómicas.

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El ensayo de micronúcleos como medida de inestabilidad genética inducida por agentes genotóxicos

Origins of chromosome translocations in childhood leukaemia. However, it is now possible to identify focal gains by scanning cancer genomes for variations in DNA copy numbers with new high-resolution methods, such as comparative genomic hybridization CGH and single-nucleotide polymorphism SNP genotyping. Rearrangements leading to the expression of a chimeric protein that mediates aberrant transcriptional repression through interaction with chromatin-modifying proteins are represented by the translocation t 15;17 q22;q21 associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia APL Panel C.

Formation of diastereomeric benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-guanine adducts in p53 gene-derived DNA sequences. Genomic Losses Affecting Noncoding Genes Cancer-associated chromosomal losses may act through inactivation of genes that do not encode proteins.

Unlike rearrangements, in which the genes that become deregulated and the functional consequences of the rearrangements can be readily identified through analysis of the breakpoint regions, most chromosomal imbalances have functional consequences that are unknown.

Importance of detecting numerical versus structural chromosome aberrations. The two main classes of chromosomal abnormalities found in human cancer are shown.

The micronuclei scoring is performed on binucleated cells and the starting sample may vary, although alterwciones studies are performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes. The micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes: Chem Res Toxicol ; Regardless of whether the respective disease genes have been identified, some deletions have proved to be of great value for determining the prognosis and guiding treatment decisions, as exemplified by the deletion of chromosome 5q in acute myeloid leukemia 38 ; deletions of chromosomes 11q, 13q, and 17p in chronic lymphocytic leukemia 80 ; and the concurrent deletion of chromosomes 1p and 19q in anaplastic oligodendroglioma.

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Effect of smoking habit on the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes: An example is a recent study in which graded down-regulation of multiple candidate genes by RNA interference was used to identify RPS14 as a causal gene for the 5q minus syndrome, 86 a subtype of the myelodysplastic syndrome characterized by a 1. For many recurrent genomic losses, however, such as 1p deletions in neuroblastoma, 76 3p deletions in lung cancer, 77 alteracionees 7q deletions in myeloid cancers, 7879 the critical genes are unknown.

For example, Cromosomicsa interference screening in combination with high-resolution DNA copy-number analysis identified the REST gene as a suppressor of epithelial-cell transformation that maps to a segment of band 4q12 that is frequently deleted in colon cancer.

Contribution of sex, age, and lifestyle. Candidate genes from this region are then screened for deletions, mutations, or epigenetic modifications that inactivate the remaining allele.

Alteraciones Cromosomicas by alfredo castro on Prezi

This view has changed since the recent discovery that prostate cancer is associated with chromosomal rearrangements that bring about overexpression of members of the ETS family of transcription factors. A protocol for the in vitro micronucleus test. Micronucleus monitoring of a floriculturist population from western Liguria, Italy.

Cytogenetic biomonitoring of Spanish greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides: Some of these genes encode proteins that can be specifically targeted by new anticancer agents. Cancer Lett ; Genomic losses include monosomies and large-scale or submicroscopical deletions. Mutat Res ; Table 1 lists examples in these two functional categories.

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In acute promyelocytic leukemia, all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide reverse the transcriptional repression caused by the PML-RARA fusion protein by forcing the release of transcription inhibitors from the fusion protein or stimulating degradation of PML-RARA or both.

Each human chromosome, shown here at a resolution of bands per haploid genome, contains two specialized structures, a centromere and two telomeres. Molecular pathogenesis of Fanconi anemia: Genetic pathways in the pathogenesis of therapy-related myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia.

Micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds induced in folic acid deficient human lymphocytes-evidence for breakage-fusion-bridge cycles in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Studies of various types of leukemia have shown that certain environmental and occupational exposures and therapy with cytotoxic drugs can induce chromosomal aberrations.

Analysis of the distribution of bands on individual chromosomes allows the identification of structural chromosomal abnormalities. A fusion protein with enhanced or aberrant transcriptional activity is present in virtually all cases of Ewing’s sarcoma, in which unique translocations — t 11;22 q Int J Alterqciones ; The hope is that continued improvements in genomic techniques, providing ever-increasing resolution, will lead to the identification of additional genetic changes that can be exploited to design better therapeutic strategies.

In the majority of cases, only one of the cromosomocas fusion genes generated and not the reciprocal counterpart indicated by the dashed arrows contributes to cancer pathogenesis.

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