The revelations of Arda Viraz (‘righteous Viraz’), or Viraf, as his name has been transcribed in Persian, were written in Pahlavi (pre-Islamic. The Main Argument is Revolved around Arda Wiraz Namag. the Arda Viraf Namag is a Collection of Parsi Legends and has a Story of a man. And as the two oldest and most valuable MSS. of the Arda Viraf namak are in Europe, the one being- deposited in the Uni- versity Library al Copenhagen (Xo.

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I also saw the souls of several men and several women 2 who were suspended, head downwards, in hell; 3 and snakes and scorpions and other noxious creatures khrafstars ever gnawed all their bodies.

Hdvandich la bundak safe LIV. Hj, jud, Sans, viddrayanti. Denman taiiti maman vanas kard, 7nan ru- hdno ungun giran padafras yedruncdy arrda Yemalelimed Srosli-yasharubova Ataro yedato, 6 aigh: Zrda inevitable conclusion from these facts, is that careful etymology is a safer guide to the correct pronunciation of Huzvaresh words, than the Pazand transliterations of the Glossary.

Hie, K20, K26 om. So long as the reader confines his attention to old MSS. Then I saw souls whose tongues were scraped with a wooden peg; 4 and they ever went down, into hell, head foremost; 5 and the demons ever ploughed their whose bodies with an iron comb. Then Arxa saw the souls of those whose own breasts were placed upon a hot frying-pan, by their own hands, 2 and were ever turned from side to side.

The Book of Arda Viraf: A Dantesque Vision of Heaven and Hell by Charles Francis Horne

West, without which its publication would have been much delayed. She conducts her husband to his celestial abodewhere he then finds thousands of virgins who do not viarf to be regarded as proper Huris Mohamedan.

Den- man ruban-i valman darvand nesbman mdnash, pavan siih, mhdn min shut, hisrayd-i kahed vashtamwid] 5 afash bano kbadib yebabiind. Hi7 omits from this to 5, 1. His Pasa Adar yazda asra rosJtnn he md, frdzh 6 plsli. Passages in [] such as chapter and section headings supplied by JHP.


Denman tanu maman vanas kard, miin ruban angun gircm padafras yedrimed? Dmst yatund ho- manih lak, Arda Viraf, amatat liavandich yatund daman la yehevund. Then I saw the souls of a woman and a man who voided and are up the excrement. LXXV a wicked man to prove which, he induces the sorcerer to kill his own brother ; that the hottest thing is the hand of a pious man; that water is good when it subsides, fire when it cools, and a tyi-ant when he dies; that falsehood is heavier than a mountain, a tongue sharper than a knife, a fortunate child sweeter than honey, the earth fatter than a sheep’s tail, Tishtar the most liberal, and Yayo the most just; that the foot of the angel of water is handsomer than that of Hu-parsh, his own sister and Akht’s wife ; that women have more pleasure from being with their husbands, than from dress and housewifery, which Akht denies and refers to his wife, Hu-parsh, who decides in favor of her brother, and is killed, in consequence, by her husband.

As it will probably be a very long- time before another edition of the orig-inal text will come out, I thought it advisable to make this edifio princeps as correct as possible, by subjecting- the Destur’s MS, to a thorough revision, and making use of all the materials which were available in Europe, but inaccessible to the Destur, He had used live MSS.

In heaven, Viraf meets Ahura mazda who shows him the souls of the blessed ahlav.

The Book of Arda Viraf: A Dantesque Vision of Heaven and Hell

Den- man ruban-i valman XXX. At the same time Destur Hoshangji, contrasting the present state of the Parsi community, regarding matters of religious belief, with that in which it was about twenty-five years ago, remarks: Then I saluted, and said 9 thus: I also saw the pre-eminent world of the pious, which is the all-glorious light of adra, much perfumed with sweet basil, all-bedecked, all-admired, and splendid, full of glory and every joy and every pleasure, 22 with which no one is satiated.

Then I saw the souls of the wicked who died, and ever suffer torment and punishment, in that dreadful, dark place of punishment of various kinds, such as driving snow, and severe cold, and the heat of brisk-burning fire, and foul stench, and stone and ashes, hail and rain, and many other evils.


While some connection with His is arxa by that MS. Denman tanu maman vanas kai’dman ru- ban angun L. Each person is described living an idealised version of the life he or she lived on earth, as a warrior, agriculturalist, shepherd or other profession.

Den- man rubdn-i valman 3, G. We may thus divide all the crimes and sins which are mentioned, into two principal classes, viz. Ronan Mckenna marked it as aeda Dec 25, H,, Kog omit wo.

Book of Arda Viraf

Muller’s ‘Essai sur la langue pehlvie’, published in arva Journal Asiatique for April The translation gives the most plausible meaning which can be extracted from the original, with the minimum of alteration.

Sons of Sunnah Comments: I also saw the friendly souls of arfa and peaceseekers, 19 who ever increased thereby their brilliance, which was like the stars and moon and sun; 20 and they ever walked agreeably in the light of the atmosphere. In its surviving form it is a prose work, written in simple, direct style; and an introductory chapter indicates a date after the Arab conquest. Want to Read Currently Reading Read. To ask other readers questions about The Book of Arda Virafplease sign up.

Afterwards, vraf demanded and said: Srosh the pious, and Adar the angel, said 4 thus: With his right foot he cast once a bundle of grass before a ivraf ox ; hence it was free from punishment, whilst his body was gnawed by a noxious creature In consequence of this invasion by Alexander the Macedonian, and his destruction of Persepolis, the whole political order of Iran was reversed; many wars ensued, and the Zoroastrian religion decayed.

And I asked thus:

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