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However, poor sandy soils also occur in Mossaka and fallow periods on these soils are longer than the periods of cultivation Sautter Other areas bear what appears to be the next step in succession, with round-topped mounds bearing perennial holetin and a few shrubs and small trees Figure 5B, D.

Rostain proposed a figure of inhabitants per km2 still a high density for agricultural lands during the period of raised-field farming in the coastal savannas of the Guianas. Why did it disappear?

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We have begun field studies of contemporary raised fields in Africa. Pre-Columbian urbanism, anthropogenic landscapes, and the future of the Amazon. At sites in the Congo, we did in fact find that hydrological conditions varied greatly among sites occupied by raised fields active or inactive. How are fallows managed? Les gens des lieux. Cocona still arises spontaneously in fields, dispersed by such wild animals as the common opossum Didelphis marsupialisaccording to one farmer who lives in the Reserva Nacional Pacaya-Samiria.


In both Congo and Zambia, resources from the aquatic component are of primordial importance in the functioning of subsistence systems.

If micro-organisms of these habitats, for example, are particularly adapted to waterlogged, anaerobic soils, or to soils that are frequently moved between waterlogged and aerobic conditions, then their actions may have contributed in unsuspected ways to the functioning of raised- field agriculture.

Methodological considerations in the study of ancient Andean field systems. Sociedade de Ciencias Naturales La Salla: Ethnoarchaeology bolletin an Amazonian People.

Our studies of patterned mound-field landscapes of natural origin are in their infancy. Oxford University Press, Oxford. Fish appear to play a particularly important role in the system.

The fact that few Amazonian fruits today are fermented to make alcoholic beverages does not mean that such activity was uncommon in the past. A mindzenke raised platform, planted with manioc, on an island in the Congo River near Mossaka.

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Activity patterns and diet of the howler monkey Alouatta belzebul in areas of logged and unlogged forest in eastern Amazonia. Entrepreneurship, Organizational Arquellogia, and International Alliances.

Furthermore, during the rainy season earthworms concentrate in mounds, where they can respire, and thus their casts are also concentrated on mounds Figure 2. The region is characterized by a tropical climate with a single long rainy season from November to April Brelsford Passiflora foetida has been introduced arqufologia parts of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, where it is considered an invasive weed.


Pre-Columbian earthworks in the Riberalta region of the Bolivian Amazon. Images of nature and society in Amazonian ethnology. Ecological studies in the surales Colombia Surales are one of the poorly studied types of mound-field landscapes found in seasonally flooded South American savannas Renard et al.

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Bruno [], who independently reached the same conclusion. However, other types of mound-field landscapes exist in these environments. Tungurahua mEl Altar mSangay m. Marc Rivas, Cuba en el ‘periodo especial’: Acta Amazonica 10 4: Glaser, University of Halle, pers.

Chinampa agriculture in Mexico. Mound-building may be only the most conspicuous of such adaptations. Incidentally co- evolved plants encompass species that exploit areas disturbed by humans, especially slashing and burning forests to create room for crop production.

Arqieologia authors have postulated that the aquatic component played similar roles in pre-Columbian raised-field systems in South America Erickson; Kolata and Ortloff Los Camellones y Chinampas Tropicales:

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