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Simple harmonic motion can serve as a mathematical model for a variety of motions, such as the oscillation of a spring.

The equation for describing the period. However, if the mass is displaced from the equilibrium position, the spring exerts a restoring elastic force that obeys Hooke’s law.

The motion is sinusoidal in time and demonstrates a single resonant frequency. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The other end of the spring is connected to a rigid support such as anxlytical wall. In mechanics and physicssimple harmonic motion is a special type of periodic motion or oscillation motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement and acts in the direction opposite to that of displacement. Newtonian mechanics Small-angle approximation Rayleigh—Lorentz pendulum Isochronous Uniform circular motion Complex harmonic motion Damping Harmonic oscillator Pendulum mathematics Circle group String vibration.


As a result, it accelerates and starts going back to the equilibrium position. The area enclosed depends on the amplitude and the maximum momentum.

Therefore, the mass continues past the equilibrium position, compressing the spring. The linear motion can take various forms depending on the shape of the slot, but the basic yoke with a constant rotation speed produces a linear motion that is simple harmonic in form.


This is a good approximation when the angle of the swing is small. For simple harmonic motion to be an accurate model for a pendulum, the net force on the object at the end of the pendulum must be proportional to the displacement.

In the solution, c 1 and c 2 are two constants determined mechanids the initial conditions, and the origin is set to be the equilibrium position. At the equilibrium position, the net restoring force vanishes. Simple harmonic motion is typified by soputions motion of a mass on a spring when it is subject to the linear elastic restoring force given by Hooke’s Law. In Newtonian mechanicsfor one-dimensional simple harmonic motion, the equation of motion, which is a second-order linear ordinary differential equation with constant coefficients, can be obtained by means of Newton’s 2nd law and Hooke’s law for a mass on a spring.

Other valid formulations are: A net restoring force then slows it down until its velocity reaches zero, whereupon it is accelerated back to the equilibrium position again.

Simple harmonic motion can be considered the one-dimensional projection of uniform circular motion. In addition, other phenomena can be approximated by simple harmonic motion, including the motion of a simple pendulum as well as molecular vibration. If the system is left at rest at the equilibrium position then there is no net force acting on the mass.


Simple harmonic motion provides a basis for the characterization of more complicated motions through the techniques of Fourier analysis. Using the techniques of calculusthe velocity and anf as a function of time can be found:.

Note if the real space and phase space diagram are not co-linear, the phase space motion becomes elliptical. Thus simple harmonic motion is a type of periodic motion.

All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November The following physical systems are solutiins examples of simple harmonic oscillator. Solving the differential equation above produces a solution that is a sinusoidal function.


This page was last edited on 29 Decemberat Views Read Edit View history. The motion of an undamped pendulum approximates to simple harmonic motion if the angle of oscillation is small. In the small-angle approximationthe motion of a simple pendulum is approximated by simple harmonic motion.

Simple harmonic motion

Retrieved from ” https: As long as the system has no energy loss, the mass continues to oscillate. By definition, if a mass m is under SHM its acceleration is directly proportional to displacement.

A mass m attached to a spring of spring constant k exhibits simple mevhanics motion in closed space. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. When the mass moves closer to the equilibrium position, the restoring force decreases. Therefore it can be simply defined as the periodic motion of a body along a straight line, such that the acceleration is directed towards the center of the motion and also proportional to the displacement from that point.

In the absence of friction and other energy loss, the total mechanical energy has a constant value. In the diagram, a simple harmonic oscillatorconsisting of a weight attached to one end of a spring, is shown. The above equation is also valid in the case when an additional cassieay force is being applied on the mass, i. These equations demonstrate that the simple harmonic motion is isochronous the period and frequency are independent of the amplitude and solutons initial phase of the motion.

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