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The molecular pathways to transgene-induced diabetes identified here were notably paralleled in human islets, making the insHEL mouse strain a promising model for the development of drugs to prevent decline in beta cell numbers.

Genetic Predisposition for Beta Cell Fragility Underlies Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Idd3NOD k. As Manf is a critical antiapoptotic factor for beta cells 25 and is poorly upregulated in NOD k. Ultrathin sections 50 nm were prepared, counterstained with uranyl acetate and lead 996, and imaged with a JEOL JEM electron microscope. QTL analysis was performed on the basis of the presence or absence of a diagnosis of diabetes at 28 weeks of age.

X Ser phosphorylation pH2A.

Super electron donors derived from diboron – Chemical Science (RSC Publishing)

Slides were then counterstained with hematoxylin and eosin. Langevin equation with colored noise for constant-temperature molecular dynamics simulations. Investigation of embryonic fibroblasts showed reduced Xrcc4 expression in NOD k -derived fibroblasts than in B10 k -derived fibroblasts Fig. This study identifies beta cell failure as a mechanistic commonality between T1D and T2D.


Here we find a new genetic component of diabetes susceptibility in T1D non-obese diabetic NOD mice, identifying immune-independent beta cell fragility.

Genome-wide transancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes 966.

Comparison of simple potential functions lri simulating liquid water. Unless otherwise mentioned, male mice were exclusively used. The publisher’s final edited version of this article is available at Nat Genet.

This similarity to T2D prompted an assessment of glucose tolerance. NOD mouse susceptibility to immune-independent diabetes demonstrated through a sensitized transgenic model. Effectively, the production of HEL mimics the compensatory upregulation of insulin, allowing the negative effects of to be studied in the absence of complicating factors.

Sibanda BL, et al. Together, these results reflect a differential outcome to cellular stress, with B10 islets capable of stressed survival whereas NOD islets respond with apoptosis and senescence. Increasing body weight predicts the earlier onset of insulin-dependant diabetes in childhood: Further, they strongly implicate Xrcc4 polymorphism as the causative changes in Tid1 and Tid2.

Together, these results point to a complex genetic origin of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, with interplay between defects in immunological tolerance and beta cell robustness.

Genetic susceptibility could be replicated by elevated levels of dietary fat. Of the candidate genes within the Tid1 and Tid2 loci, supporting evidence was found for Xrcc4. Single-electron transfer is an important process in organic chemistry, in which a single-electron reductant electron donor acts as a key component.


Membranes were incubated with mouse antibody to Xrcc4 1: Absence of pdependent apoptosis combined with nonhomologous end-joining defciency leads to a severe diabetic phenotype in mice.

Online Methods Mice B Nijnik A, et al.

Genetic Predisposition for Beta Cell Fragility Underlies Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Robinson MD, Oshlack A. MEFs were allowed to recover for 15 h before fixation and staining with Alexa Fluor —conjugated antibody to phosphorylated H2A. Thimiri Govinda Raj DB, et al. NOD mice have been suggested to have a defect in the UPR 11although the use of immunocompetent mice in published experiments means that the observation could be secondary.

The male-specific susceptibility to diabetes in this model is in sharp contrast to the strong female bias in NOD mice. The authors declare no competing financial interests. Notably, of the few proteins expressed at higher levels in B10 k. Bradfield JP, et al. Total insulin levels were increased in insHEL transgenic mice Fig.

To further dissect the genetic basis for NOD mouse susceptibility to stress-induced diabetes, we generated a list of potential candidate genes meeting one or more of four criteria: Analysis of UPR reporter expression demonstrated equal induction of the reporter in both strains Fig.

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